Sunday, March 22, 2020

Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle free essay sample

Examines concepts of moral habit responsibility, virtue, choice, happiness, ethical action and in sociopolitical context. The purpose of this research is to examine Aristotles account of moral habituation and responsibility as articulated in the Nicomachean Ethics. The plan of the research will be to set forth the context in which Aristotles description of private virtue and social responsibility emerges, and then to discuss Aristotles reasons for claiming that the habits of moral excellence (virtue) are formed in childhood on one hand and how that view can be reconciled with the view that virtue involves choice on the other. To appreciate Aristotles explanation of virtue and responsibility as aspects of ethics, it is first necessary to realize the world view from which that explanation arises. Aristotle views ethics as a so-called practical science, which is to say that ethics is something that has application to real life beyond. We will write a custom essay sample on Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page .

Thursday, March 5, 2020

English as a Second Language Essays

English as a Second Language Essays English as a Second Language Essay English as a Second Language Essay I love to create, design and construct. Ten years ago I decided to attend to Architectural School in Peru and become an architect as most of my family members are. It was the best decision I have ever made but it was something else there, it was my interest for travelling and know more about the rest of the world. As soon as I finished my career and hopeless of being successful on my path , I decided to go for the American dream , but again it was something it will make this dream even harder to achieve : I didn’t know how to speak the language . Ten years since then ,being a foreigner and with so many frustrations of not having completed yet my dream of being an Architect in AMERICA , I decided to go back to school to pursue my professional goals. The class of English 92 , will help me not just to learn properly English but also I consider is the first step to be successful in this country.First of all , to my consideration the knowledge I have about English is very few but I am very confident of the few I know and very open to receive any corrections and criticism . I am a very persuasive learner. I educate myself learning English using tools such of tv, internet , radio and reading novels and books. I learned how to speak , read and hold conversations but my accent and my not very much extended vocabulary as long as my few grammar skills , can make my intent to express myself so much harder . Once I finished English 91 I would love to feel more confident on my English know lodgment which will make me sound and look more professional on my career path . I worked really hard to finally be able to go back to school and complete my studies . I was and I still am a very persuasive person. If don’t know something I will investigate and use any tools to get what I’m looking for . Being in a class and interact with the computers at the same time , learning about the links and tutorials was unusual and somehow overwhelming , but I tried hard to a dapt

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Personal essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Personal - Essay Example Back to those days when I was in elementary school, my parents were busy with work, so needed to get used to staying at home all by myself. This was so, because it was legal in my home country to leave children alone at home. I still remember the first time my mom needed to leave home for some emergency, and I had to stay at home alone for the first time. After my mom locked the door, I ran to the window and watched my mom leave, with my tears flowing. I felt so afraid and helpless at that time. Even now, I still remember the feeling. I did not understand why my parents were so busy everyday that they had no time to accompany me. This bewilderment on my part no doubt created some emotional distance between us. Just like most teenagers, I experienced my rebellious period. I was extremely tired of my parents at that time, and I thought they did not understand me. No matter what they said, it seemed I was always wrong. I liked to shut myself in my room after I got home from school, then I would not show up until next morning when I needed to go back to school for classes. I did not truly understand my parents until I went to college. Although my resistance towards my parents weakened after the rebellious period, for most of the time, I ignored what my parents told me. I did things following of my own thoughts and will. In retrospect, I realize what my parents told me was quite useful for my future life. Because I had been an independent child from an early age, my parents thought I could take care of myself, and were confident to let me go on my own and study abroad to secure a better future for myself. I was accustomed to traveling around on my own, and I was very excited about studying abroad. When my father asked me whether I was fully prepared to study in the United States in all seriousness, I answered â€Å"yes† without hesitation. In my mind there was no difference between studying abroad and studying out of state within my home country. I naively th ought I was mature enough to take full charge of my own business without help from anyone. When I really set foot on a foreign land and started a totally different life though, I came face to face with my self-righteousness and naivete. It was then that I began to understand why my parents were very worried about how my life would turn out in a foreign country, without them by my side. Perhaps it was from the moment that I started to live in the United States that I really grew up to be a person who can be responsible for myself, as well as for my parents. When I was living by my parents’ side, there was nothing that I needed to worry about. My parents assumed all of the pressures of my life, and my only task was to live well, and study well. When I came to the United States though, I needed to take over every single task of life, from renting an apartment to buying groceries. All of a sudden I realized how difficult it was to live a comfortable life. It is a great thing that my mom managed the life of the whole family. When I was living with my parents, I would stay far away from my parents for a long time. I never thought how my parents would miss me back at home, and of course I never missed my parents then. When I came to the United States though, I kept thinking of my parents and how they were. I would come back home on summer vacations and knew they were happy to be with me, even though they

Monday, February 3, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility as a Strategy Tool to Increase Research Paper

Corporate Social Responsibility as a Strategy Tool to Increase Shareholder Value - Research Paper Example The CSR is defined as actions that corporations engage in to further some social good, and which are beyond the firms’ interest and are legally required. It is also viewed as achieving commercial success through means that honor ethical values and people, communities, as well as the natural environment. In broader terms, the CSR denotes a comprehensive set of policies, programs, and practices that are integrated into the business strategies and decision-making processes and include issues related to governance, human rights, environmental concerns, community investment, business ethics, the marketplace, and the workplace.  This concept receives different views from its supporters and detractors. Broadly, those against it, use the classical economic arguments as put by Milton Friedman; that the management should serve to maximize the shareholder's profits. This is different from the CSR practices that serve many stakeholders. The second objection is that business managers are not meant to handle social activities as they lack social skills and should handle financial and operational matters. The third objection is that the engagement in social activities dilutes the business’s primary purpose. On the other hand, the proponents of CSR argue that CSR practices are useful for a business that would want to function in the future since it makes it create a healthy climate. The next support for CSR is that government regulation is reduced, and the companies have the necessary and adequate resources to fulfill society’s expectations of it. Another argument for CSR is that being proactive is better than being reactive because being proactive helps an organization to plan and is less costly than reacting to social problems after they have occurred.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Waste management in India Essay

Waste management in India Essay INTRODUCTION India is the second most populated country a second fastest growing economy in the world. From the period of 2001-2026 the population of India is to increase from 1030 million to 1400 million, if we consider the increase rate to be 1.2 % annually then there will be an increase of 36% in 2026.accordingly about 285 million live in urban areas and about 742 million live in rural areas. (Census of India, 2001).In India urbanisation is becoming more because people are moving from villages to cities and there is a rapid increase in population in the metropolitan cities .Mumbai is the largest populated city followed by New Delhi and Kolkata. Generally, the greater the economic prosperity and the higher the percentage of urban population, the greater is the amount of solid waste produced (Hoornweg and Laura, 1999). In Hoornweg and Laura, 1999 1996 about 114,576 tonnes/day of municipal solid waste was generated by the urban population of India, by the end of 2026 it is predicted to increase to 440,460tonnes/day This great increase in the amount of MSW generated is due to changing lifestyle and living standards urban population(Hoornweg and Laura, 1999). STUDY AREA Delhi is a very densely populated area and is the capital of India. Since Delhi is an urbanised city the annual growth rate is increasing very rapidly in the last decade the growth rate has increased by 3.85%. Delhi is the capital of India this tells us that it is the centre for commerce trade and power, since it is one of the largest cities and the capital it produces excellent job opportunities, which account for its rapid increase in its population and increased pace of urbanization. Due to the fast urbanisation and the growing population the production of municipal solid waste is also increasing very rapidly. According to a survey Delhi generates about 7000 tonnes/day of municipal solid waste and this municipal waste is to ride about 17000-25000 tonnes/day by the year 2026.due to the rapid increase in the population and municipal solid waste the disposal of the waste has become a great head ache for the municipality in Delhi. Out of the waste gathered only 70-80% of municipal sol id waste is collected while the remaining is dumped onto streets or open ditches. Out of the 70-805 collected only 9% of the collected municipal solid waste is treated by composting the remaining is sent to the land fill sites. New Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC), The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) and Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB) are three municipal entities responsible for MSW management in Delhi. (Vikash Talyan, R.P. Dahiya, 2008). IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES, TYPES AND COMPOSITION OF MUNCIPAL SOLID WASTE IN DELHI Sources and types of solid waste in Delhi: Residential:-the residence might be single family or multiple family dwellers the types of waste they produce are paper, food wastes , cardboard , leather, yard wastes, textiles, glass, special wastes, metals, plastics , ashes, wood and household hazardous wastes. Industrial: industries produce ashes, food wastes, packaging, special wastes, housekeeping wastes, construction and demolition materials and hazardous wastes. Commercial Institutional: they produce wood, metals, cardboard, glass, special wastes, Paper, food wastes, hazardous wastes. Municipal services: landscape and tree trimmings, Street sweepings, general wastes from beaches, parks, and other recreational areas, sludge. (Hoornweg, Daniel with Laura Thomas. 1999) Composition of waste: The population of Delhi is 13.9 million, and they produce 7000 tonnes/day of municipal solid waste at the rate of 0.500 kg/capital/day and accordingly the population as well as the MSW in increasing by 2026 the municipal solid waste generated will increase to 17,000-25,000 tonnes/day. Because of the increase in the MSW the municipal body will face a lot of problem after composting and incineration they would still have to deal with a lot of waste and this waste would generally go to landfill sites. The characterisation of the waste by its type, composition and source is important this will make monitoring and management of solid waste easy. Based on this we can use different types of processes to dispose the solid waste. The following information will tell about the generation of MSW from various sources is Delhi in the year 2004. Source wise generation of the MSW (tonnes/day) in Delhi Sources MSW(Tonnes/day) Residential waste 3010 Industrial waste 502 Hospital waste 107 Main shopping centres 1017 Construction waste 382 Vegetable and fruit markets 538 Source 🙠 MCD, 2004) The Tata Energy Research Institute conducted a study in 2002 in Delhi to determine the physical and chemical composition of municipal solid waste. This study in 2002 tells us that the composition of MSW is not changed that much from the past decade. According to the study the major part of the MSW consists of biodegradables fallowed by other wastes. Physical composition (as wt. %) of MSW Chemical composition (as wt. %) of MSW Parameters 2002 Biodegradable 38.6 Inert 34.7 Glass and Crockery 1.0 Paper 5.6 Non-biodegradable 13.9 Plastic 6.0 Parameters 2002 Moisture 43.8 Phosphorus as P2O5 0.3 Organic carbon 20.5 nitrogen 0.9 C/N ratio 24.1 Calorific value (kCal/kg) 713.0 Source 🙠 TERI, 2002) The composition of MSW of an urban population depends on various factors like place location, climate, commercial activities, population, cultural activities, economic status if the residence and urban structure .Before we do anything we need to know the composition of the MSW so we can determine the best suited operations and equipment for the facilities that dispose of the MSW. There was a survey conducted by Municipal Corporation of Delhi to evaluate the composition and properties of MSW. This study involved the different places in Delhi where MSW was produces. The following table tells the details of the study Composition (as wt. %) of MSW generating from various sources in Delhi Parameters Food waste Recyclables Inert Others Moisture Ash content C/N ratio Lower CV (kcal/kg) Higher CV Residential waste                            1.low income group 58.4 15.7 22.8 3.1 54 21.8 39 754-2226 2238-4844 2. Middle income group 76.6 21.2 0.5 1.7 65 6.3 30 732-1939 3415-6307 3.High income group 71.9 23.1 0.3 4.7 59 10.9 31 1300-1887 4503-5359 4. JJ Clusters (Slums) 69.4 14.1 15.8 0.7 63 15.6 46 204-1548 1582-4912 Vegetable markets 97.2 2.3 0.5 76 3.3 16 0-1309 3083-4442 Institutional areas 59.7 33.8 4 2.5 50 6.7 35 129-3778 2642-5459 Streets 28.4 12 56.1 3.5 19 56.7 51 1007-2041 1188-3289 Commercial areas 15.6 68 16.4 18 8.8 158 1815-4593 3373-6185 Landfills 73.7 9.2 10.8 6.3 47 15.3 38 191-4495 2042-5315 Source :- (MCD, 2004) RELEVANT REGULATIONS FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA The major policies and legislative frameworks for the municipal solid waste management in Delhi are Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000: according to this policy there is a set process for the collection, sorting, storage, transportation and disposal of the MSW. The Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 and Amendment Rules, 2003:- bio-medical waste should be treated according to the standards of schedule v. The Delhi plastic bag (Manufacture, Sales and Usage) And Non-Biodegradable Garbage (Control) Act, 2000: according to this plastic bags should be recycled and non-degradable plastic bags should not be dumped in public drains. Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989 and Amendment Rules, 2000 and 2003:-there are limitations for the import and export of hazardous wastes and there should be proper handling and management of hazardous waste. (Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2000) MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGENENT IN DELHI Primary collection and storage of MSW in Delhi According to the Delhi municipal corporation act 1957 the owners, tenants or the person who is occupying the residence, commercial or industrial area is responsible for the disposal of the MSW at a particular area provided by the municipal corporation. But this rule was changed in 2000 which stated that the collection of MSW would be from house to house because of this rule the municipality cooperation faced a lot of problem due to the rise in population as well as residential houses so doth the systems are being applied to collect MSW. The municipal cooperation of Delhi is getting awareness programs to help the citizens understand the need of segregating the municipal solid waste by placing two separate bins one for recycling materials and the other non-recycling materials. By doing this the municipality is reducing the work load and they can dispose of the material in an easy way without any fuss. The municipal authority has a schedule for the collection of the waste example a part icular area will have a particular day for the collection of MSW. The Delhi municipal authority provides a primary storage facilities like dustbins, metal containers that have different capacities ranging from 1m3 ,4m3,10m3 to 12-15 tonnes these containers are placed in locations that are easily accusable to people. The size of the containers that are place at a primary storage location depends on the amount of MSW being produced by the area and the population of the area. These metal containers and bins are emptied with the help of modern hydraulic collection trucks. In Delhi on an average there are 3-4 collection sites. The MCD has employed about 50,000 people for primary storage collection, 2600 for secondary storage collection and about 370 people foe sweeping the streets. (Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2000) Transportation The MCD has many vehicles for the collection of primary and secondary storage waste. The MSD in its fleet contains refuse removal trucks, tractors and loaders they have about 100 vehicles to do the job. What these vehicles do is they collect the waste and take them to the landfill sites. Recycling and re-use Recycling and re-use of MSW is done in a widespread manner where waste pickers are employed as well as there are self employed waste pickers who collect the waste and sell them. How the system works is that these waste pickers and waste collectors gather waste from the residential areas, commercial areas, streets and landfill sites and they sell them to the dealers these dealers range from small, medium and large dealers. After the dealers purchase the materials they are sent to the recycling plant that is established by the government. The following table tells us at what rate the materials are sold (Ankit agarwal, Ashish Singhmar, 2004) Prices of recyclable materials at different recycling levels Recyclable material Recyclable material Price at small recyclable dealer (Rs.) Price at medium recyclable dealer (Rs.) Price at large recyclable dealer (Rs.) Value added in the Process (%) Plastic             PET bottles 1.75 2.25-2.50 3.75-4 121 Milk packets 5.5-6.5 6-7 8-8.50 37.5 Hard plastic like shampoo bottles, caps 7-7.25 9 10-10.5 41 Plastic thread, fibres, ropes, chair cane 6-7 8-8.50 10 67 Plastic cups and glasses 7-8 10-12 13-14 80 Paper             White paper 3-3.25 3.75-4 5-6 76 Mix shredded paper 2-2.25 2.25-2.50 3-3.25 47 Cartons and brown packing Papers 2.25 2.50 3 33 Fresh newspaper 3-3.50 3.25-3.75 4.50-4.75 42 Tetra pack 1.75-2 2-2.25 2.75-3 53 Glass             Broken glass 0.50 0.90-1    90 Bottles 2 2.25-2.50    19 Aluminium             Beer and cold drink cans 40-45 43-48 75-85 88 Deodorant, scent cans 42-45 55-60 90-95 113 Aluminium foil 20-22 25-27 30-32 48 Other metals             Steel utensils 20-22 25-27 30 43 Copper wire 70-75 80-85 95-100 35 Source 🙠 Ankit agarwal, Ashish Singhmar, 2004) Composting: Coming to composting only 9% of the total MSW is composted the remaining 91% is sent to landfill sites. There are three places set up by the Delhi municipal authority for composting MSW where as two plants are set up at Okhala and the other one is set up at Bhalswa .These plant has a treatment capacity of 150 tonnes/day but they are not utilised to the fullest because of the cost. The treatment capacity of the plant at Bhalswa is 500 tonnes/day. (Vikash Talyan, R.P. Dahiya, 2008) Incineration: The municipal cooperation of Delhi also tried incarnation they built an incineration plant with the help of a foreign company. But this was shut down immediately because the MSW did not have enough calorific value the minimum calorific value is between 1200-1400 kcal/kg. (Vikash Talyan, R.P. Dahiya, 2008). Final disposal of MSW: Of the total amount of MSW collected 91% is sent to landfill. These landfill sites are located at the outskirts of the city. The land fill sites are the nearest available low line area or waste lands. The transfer of the MSW to these sites is by the vehicles that the Delhi municipality has. These landfill sites are chosen based only on availability and not on any other reason. These landfill sites are poorly maintained which arises a problem of health and safety as well as environmental concerns. There is another big issue because of the poor maintenance of the landfill sites there is a lot of leachate that is being produced mostly in the rainy season due to which the ground water as well as the river next to the landfill sites is getting contaminated. At these landfill sites with the help of bulldozers the MSW is levelled and compressed. The MSW is compressed to a layer of 2-5m and a covering is provided. At the binging there were 20 landfill sites that were created by the Delhi mun icipality out of which 15 are exhausted already. At present there are 3 landfill sites that are being operated one is at Gazipur it was started in 1984 , the other landfill site is located at Bhalswa it was started in 1993 ,the last operating land fill site is located in Okhala it was started in 1994. (Vikash Talyan, R.P. Dahiya, 2008). HEALTH AND SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS Health and safety and environmental risks are a major concern in the MSW management in Delhi. The workers as well as the waste pickers are not provided with proper health and safety equipment like boots and gloves. The working conditions are unhygienic .the chance of transfer of infection is high and because of this if a worker gets sick he loses his wages. The workers are also not provided with medical insurance. The environmental risk is also high because the landfill sites are not maintained properly and the leachate gets leaked into the underground water as well as the river Yamuna .these issues should be looked into very carefully. IMPROVEMENT We can improve these poor conditions by privatisation. We can let the private sectors help in the disposal of MSW. The Delhi municipal authorities can open the incineration plant and dispose the waste. They can also involve the local communities as well as the NGOs to help in the disposal of waste. The municipal authorities should identify a proper treatment technology. The authorities should increase standards of reuse and recycling of waste mainly composting. CONCLUSION With the rapid increase in population and fast urbanisation of Delhi the current policies and regulations want be sufficient for controlling the rapid increase in the MSW. Due to this the health and safety as well as the environmental risks are increasing .The municipal authorities of Delhi cannot keep up with the MSW that is being produced now but according to a prediction the MSW by 2026 is going to increase 4 folds if this happens the municipal authorities will be facing a lot of problem. Even the Delhi government has realised this and they are making changes in the form of master plans. The government is also approaching the public and private sectors for help like the citizens and the NGOs. First of all people should be educated on proper disposal of MSW. The government should see to that the master plans are being properly followed at all levels. Only by doing this the Delhi municipal authorities can keep the MSW in control. Referencing Ankit agarwal, Ashish Singhmar, 2004. Municipal solid waste recycling and associated markets in Delhi, India. Resources, Conservation and Recycling Census of India,.2001 . Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India (GoI). [Online].available http://www.censusindia.net Hoornweg, Daniel with Laura Thomas. 1999. Working Paper Series Nr. 1. Urban Development Sector Unit. East Asia and Pacific Region. Page 5. [Online] http://web.mit.edu/urbanupgrading/urbanenvironment/sectors/solid-waste-sources.html. Hoornweg, D., Laura, T., 1999. What a waste: solid management in Asia. Working Paper Series No. 1. Urban Development Sector Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region, the World Bank, Washington, DC MCD, 2004. Feasibility study and master plan report for optimal solid waste treatment and disposal for the entire state of Delhi based on public and private partnership solution, Municipal Corporation of Delhi, Delhi, India. Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2000.the gazette of India. [Online]. Available http://envfor.nic.in/legis/hsm/mswmhr.html TERI, 2002.Performance Measurements of Pilot Cities, Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi, India. Vikash Talyan, R.P. Dahiya, 2008. State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India, Waste ManagementVolume 28, Issue 7, 2008, Pages 1276-1287 waste management essay in 150 words

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Virtue Ethics Notes

Virtue Ethics Aristotle was a Greek philosopher who lived between 384 and 322 BCE. He was deeply interested in the idea of cause and purpose. On the Foundation Paper, you will have explored the ideas of the Four Causes and the Prime Mover. Both of these theories look at the idea of how things are caused and how they move towards their purpose. In ethics, any theory that looks at how we become better people over time, or that looks at how we move towards our purpose is called a teleological theory, from the Greek word telos meaning goal or purpose.Virtue ethics is teleological because it argues that we should practice being good, or virtuous people over time. Virtue ethics is therefore not deontological (like Kant’s ethics) and it is also not normative. It is known as aretaic ethics from the Greek word arete meaning excellence or virtue. Virtue ethics is not concerned with what we ought to do, but with what kind of person we should try to become. Aristotle argued that every act ion we perform is directed towards some purpose, that it tries to achieve something. He then argued that there are superior and subordinate aims.Subordinate aims are what we have to achieve first, before we achieve superior aims, for example, if you are hungry (which might be a superior aim) you need to make a sandwich to achieve that aim. Making the sandwich becomes a subordinate aim. The aim of life Aristotle argued that the superior aim of human life is to achieve something called eudaemonia. Eudaemonia is a Greek word that roughly translates to mean ‘happiness’ or ‘flourishing’. Aristotle argued that this is the aim that should govern our lives: the pursuit of happiness or pleasure.Eudaemonia is achieved when we become virtuous and Aristotle argued that this is a process that we grow towards by practising virtues. It is much like learning to play a musical instrument: the more you practise, the better you get. Some of you will have come across the word daemon before in the ‘His Dark Materials’ trilogy by Philip Pullman. All the characters in the books have daemons and Pullman says of them: ‘the daemon is that part of you that helps you grow towards wisdom. ’ Lyra, the central character in the trilogy has a daemon called Pantalaimon who is instrumental in helping her deal with situations wisely as the story progresses. [Pleasure] is also thought to be most important for the forming of a virtuous character to like and dislike the right things because pleasure and pain permeate the whole of life and have a powerful influence upon virtue and the happy life, since people choose what is pleasant and avoid what is painful. ’[1] Aristotle did realise however, that one person’s view of happiness might be very different from another person’s view of happiness. He distinguished between three types of pleasure/happiness: 1. Pleasure seekers: these are people who are driven by their basic desires and simply live from one pleasurable experience to the next: e. . eating good food, sleeping, drinking and having sex. 2. Seekers of honour: Aristotle saw politicians as seekers of honour. These are people who try to find solutions to important problems and get a sense of honour from doing that. 3. Those who love contemplation: these are philosophers and thinkers. Aristotle believed that the lowest forms of happiness are those found by the pleasure seekers. He wrote: ‘The utter servility of the masses comes out in their preference for a bovine [animalistic] existence. ’[2] For Aristotle, the distinguishing feature of humans is their ability to reason, which they get from their soul.In plants, the anima or soul produces the search for nourishment and food, and in animals, the anima produces the ability to move. Humans have these two characteristics, but also the ability to reason. Aristotle called humans ‘rational animals’. It is for this reason that he beli eved we should strive to achieve something better with our lives than simply living from pleasure to pleasure. Happiness for Aristotle is an activity of the soul, i. e. the correct and full use of the soul can help us to discover happiness. Aristotle divided the soul up into two parts, the rational part and the irrational part.Both parts of the soul are then divided in two. The rational part contains the calculative and scientific parts. The scientific part of the soul holds types of knowledge that are factual and not up for debate: in other words, a priori knowledge. The calculative part does what it says; it calculates. It weighs up knowledge and helps us to arrive at decisions. The irrational part of the soul contains the desiderative part and the vegetative part. The vegetative part of the soul is concerned with basic needs that keep us alive and is effectively our survival instinct.The desiderative part helps us to distinguish between needs and wants. For Aristotle, a correctly functioning soul uses all of the parts well and properly. Vardy and Grosch use the example of a fruitcake to demonstrate this. If the vegetative part recognises that I am hungry, it tells me to eat. The desiderative part may desire cake to alleviate the hunger: something I want, but don’t necessarily need. The scientific part of my soul knows that fruit is better for me than cake and the calculative part, weighing up the evidence, comes up with the suggestion of fruitcake. Thus all the parts of my soul have been used in the decision.This is very important, as only a soul that functions correctly can find happiness, or eudaemonia. The Virtues Now that we have seen the basic ideas that Aristotle had about humans and how they function, we can look at the virtues. Aristotle believed that the correct way to live, was to follow something called the doctrine of the mean, the middle way or temperance. Aristotle realised that human behaviour is made up of extremes which he called vic es of excess and vices of deficiency. Aristotle argued that the best course of action falls between the two and that this is the virtue.For example, if courage is the virtue, then cowardice is the vice of deficiency and foolhardiness is the vice of excess. Aristotle believed that there are two types of virtue: intellectual virtues and moral virtues. The intellectual virtues are learned through instruction i. e. they are taught. The moral virtues are developed through habit. The intellectual virtues are developed in the rational part of the soul and the moral virtues are developed in the irrational part of the soul. There are 9 intellectual virtues, as follows: †¢ Art or technical skill (techne) †¢ Scientific knowledge (episteme) Prudence or practical wisdom (phronesis) †¢ Intelligence or intuition (nous) †¢ Wisdom (sophia) †¢ Resourcefulness or good deliberation (eubolia) †¢ Understanding (sunesis) †¢ Judgement (gnome) †¢ Cleverness (deinotes) The 12 moral virtues, with their corresponding vices are set out in the table below. |Vice of deficiency |Virtue |Vice of excess | |Cowardice |Courage |Rashness | |Insensibility Temperance |Intemperance | |Illiberality |Liberality |Prodigality | |Pettiness |Munificence |Vulgarity | |Humble-mindedness |High-mindedness |Vaingloriousness | |Want of ambition |Right ambition |Over-ambition | |Spiritlessness |Good temper |Irascibility | |Surliness |Friendliness/civility |Obsequiousness | |Sarcasm |Sincerity |Boastfulness | |Boorishness |Wittiness |Buffoonery | |Shamelessness |Modesty |Bashfulness | |Callousness |Just resentment |Spitefulness | Aristotle recognised that not all people will attain to the virtues, but he did argue that a balance between the intellectual and moral virtues was essential. Practising the moral virtues alone, might result in conformity and being an automaton. Aristotle urged us to think about the life we lead too. He believed that the virtues were essential to a harmonious society.Aristotle believed that the overall well being of the group is much more important than the well being of individuals alone and argued that it is through encouraging the practise of the virtues that society will be a harmonious place. It is friendship that is the main aim of the moral life, for without friendship, justice is meaningless. Aristotle was not a deep believer in the after-life. Aristotle was a man who valued empirical (sense) evidence above all else and believed that if anything lived on, it would be our memories. Because of this, the point of being virtuous is not to achieve unity with God, or win a place in heaven, it is good because it is the right way to live.Modern virtue ethics In 1958, Elizabeth Anscombe wrote an essay entitled ‘Modern Moral Philosophy’. In this essay, she argued that deontological ethics had become outdated. The existence of God had a considerable shadow cast over it and she argued that the religious basis to ethi cs and morality (i. e. that God gives rules to humans to follow and they must follow them if they wish to get to heaven) could no longer be trusted. She also felt that ethics had moved away from a focus on a person’s character and had instead become obsessed with lots of rules and laws. Anscombe argued that it was time for a return of virtue ethics. Alasdair MacIntyreIn 1981, Alasdair MacIntyre (left) wrote a book called ‘After Virtue’ in which he argued that we should give serious consideration to Aristotle’s theory. In his book, he traced the history of virtue ethics and tried to establish a system of virtue ethics for the modern age. His basic complaint was that modern ethics put too much emphasis on reason and not enough stress on people, their characters and the contexts of their lives. MacIntyre noticed that as societies developed 2,500 years ago, so different virtues developed too. In the age of Homer (who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey), the follo wing virtues were paramount; †¢ Physical strength †¢ Courage †¢ Cunning †¢ Friendship These are known as the Homeric Virtues. As cities (the polis) developed, life slowly became more civilized.Aristotle developed his theory of virtues for the city of Athens and his virtues became known as the Athenian Virtues. They were (briefly) as follows: †¢ Courage †¢ Friendship †¢ Justice: retributive (getting what you deserve) and distributive (making sure that the goods of society are fairly distributed) †¢ Temperance †¢ Wisdom The emphasis on strength and cunning, needed in time of war, was gone. MacIntyre argued that the Athenian virtues of Aristotle were the most complete. For MacIntyre, the problems with ethics began during the Enlightenment, a period of time during the 17th and 18th Centuries when Science became more important for discovering truth.It was thought that a single, rational cause for morality could be discovered and thinkers such as Hume and Kant attempted to do this. MacIntyre realised that whilst the theorists in universities were trying to work morality out, society still needed virtuous people in everyday life; people who run jumble sales to raise money for the local hospital for example. MacIntyre argued that despite the theories of people like Kant and Hume, the virtues have lived on. What’s more, society depends for its very existence upon people who exhibit the virtues. MacIntyre argued that living a virtuous life depended upon getting into the habit of being moral and of striving towards being virtuous. He argued that this can give life an overall purpose and meaning.The virtues for MacIntyre, are any human quality which helps us to achieve the ‘goods’ in life. MacIntyre’s virtues are as follows: †¢ Courage: courage is very important as it helps us to face up to challenges that may come our way. †¢ Justice: this is a very important virtue. Justice is fairness and it is the art of giving someone what they deserve or merit. To be unjust is to be unfair. †¢ Temperance: this prevents us from acting rashly; losing our temper for example. †¢ Wisdom: this is not knowledge: it is the ability to know how to act in the right way in particular situations. †¢ Industriousness: hard work. †¢ Hope: being optimistic. †¢ Patience.Underneath the virtues must be the good will of the person. To be virtuous, one must desire to do virtuous things, rather than do them involuntarily. An act is not virtuous if it is not intended. MacIntyre also used the idea of internal and external goods, a version of which is seen in Natural Law. An internal good is specific to the activity itself; for example, giving money to charity results in helping others and developing a sense of satisfaction. An external good, is a good that is not specific to the act. For example, when giving to charity, your example may inspire others to do the same. MacIntyre al so warned that being virtuous does not prevent you from being open to vices.He gives the example of a great violinist who could be vicious, or a chess player who could be mean spirited. The vices would prevent these people from achieving maximum virtue. MacIntyre suggests that the three most important virtues are justice, courage and honesty. We can only achieve moral excellence through practising these three. They are core virtues that help to prevent organisations and institutions from becoming morally corrupt. It is largely through institutions that traditions, cultures and morality spread: if these institutions are corrupt, then vices become widespread. Philippa Foot Philippa Foot has also put together a modern version of virtue ethics.She has argued that the wise person directs their will to what is good and a good is something that is both intrinsically and extrinsically good (see MacIntyre above). The wise, or virtuous person also knows that there are particular ways of obtai ning certain goods and it is these ways of obtaining goods that are the virtues. She also argues that virtues and skills are different things. We may make a deliberate mistake with a skill, but not damage our character or reputation; for example, a teacher who deliberately misspells a word to draw their students attention to it. However, if you deliberately act in a non-virtuous way, your reputation and character will suffer. Foot also characterises virtues as ‘correctives’. She likens humans to planks of wood that are left out to season.Wood naturally warps and changes shape and it needs continuous straightening to make it straight. Virtues do the same for the human character: they continually straighten us out so that eventually we can, through habit, become virtuous. Evaluation of virtue ethics argued that justice and truthfulness are not a middle way, but are ethical absolutes that we have a duty to follow. Grotius argued that there are absolute moral laws that we h ave a duty to obey and that can be worked out by anyone of sufficient intelligence. ———————– [1] Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, X 1172a. [2] Ibid: I, 1095b. ———————– The five primary intellectual virtues The four secondary intellectual virtues

Friday, January 10, 2020

Discuss the early life experiences of both Frankenstein Essay

   Shortly after returning from Ingolstadt, Elizabeth developed Scarlet fever. Victor’s mother cared for Elizabeth and nursed her back to health. But she also developed scarlet fever and died. The death of his mother affected Victor Frankenstein intensely, and it was one of the main reasons why Frankenstein started to develop a being â€Å"Invulnerable to none but a violent death. † â€Å"When his mother died he was devastated, his initial grief and disbelief gave way to a determination and an aim in life, which was to find out a new life form that would be stronger and smarter and would not die from disease. â€Å"- Andrew Prothero Victor Frankenstein had a particularly good upbringing. â€Å"No Human being could have passed a happier childhood than myself. â€Å"The opposite is true about the creature. The early life experiences of the Creature The Creature was ‘born’ as a result of Victor Frankenstein’s quest to create a being that couldn’t die. Frankenstein had left the Creature, and had gone to bed, but the Creature came to visit Victor Frankenstein in the night. â€Å"I beheld the wretch, the miserable monster which I had created. † The creature was so large and physically revolting that when it was ‘born’ Frankenstein was terrified and fled. â€Å"Breathless horror and disgust filled my heart. † The Creature first has contact with Humans when He is thrown out of a town. â€Å"The whole village was roused; some fled, some attacked me, until, grievously bruised by stones and many other kinds of missile weapons, I escaped to the open country. † The Creature wanders the woods, freezing cold until He finds a fire. The Creature was intrigued by it’s warmth and â€Å"thrust [His] hand into the live embers. † The creature learns to talk by eavesdropping on the De Laceys and talks to De Lacey, who is Blind. â€Å"I knocked. â€Å"Who is there? † said the old man-â€Å"Come in† I entered; â€Å"Pardon this intrusion,† said I â€Å"I am a traveller in want of a little rest; you would greatly oblige me if you would allow to remain a few minutes before the fire. † ‘ â€Å"Enter,† said DeLacy; â€Å"And I will try in what manner I can relieve your wants, but, unfortunately, my children are from home, and, as I am blind, I am afraid I shall find it difficult to procure food for you. † ‘ â€Å"Do not trouble yourself, my kind host, I have food; it is warmth and rest only that I need. † The Creature also reads Paradise lost and Sorrows of Werter The Creator learns of his creator and the way in which he was created by reading Frankenstein’s journal. The Creature has no contact with the opposite sex, although Frankenstein starts to create a female partner for the Creature. â€Å"A turning point for both characters is when they meet and the creature requests for a companion. He goes to Frankenstein and demands a companion. ‘You must create a female for me, with whom I can live in the interchange of those sympathies necessary for my beingi , this is a very reasonable statement in many ways, and one main argument would be that he is alone in the world with no one like him. † – Andrew Prothero. When Frankenstein changes his mind and smashes it, the Creature is deeply upset. The Creature has no friends, being â€Å"too horrible for human eyes† and learns to expect Ill- treatment. â€Å"I expected this reception,’ said the daemon. † The Creature lives in the forest and icy caves, a â€Å"hovel† and a â€Å"kennel. † â€Å"[I] fearfully took refuge in a low hovel, quite bare, and making a wretched appearance after the palaces that I had beheld in the village. This hovel, however joined a cottage of a neat and pleasant appearance; but, after my late dearly bought experience, I dared not enter it. My place of refuge was constructed of wood, but so low that could, with difficulty sit upright in it. † Conclusion Robert Winston has said, â€Å"Nurture counts more than nature. † I consider this to be true for the Creature, who is driven to commit His crimes through deprivation, neglect, and vicious persecution from Frankenstein and other townspeople, who in the 1700s would have treated the Creature as a freak. The Creature wasn’t educated in moral values, and so it didn’t know that it was wrong to commit the crimes that he committed. I believe that in Frankenstein’s case, He was nurtured in the very best way possible. His parents were â€Å"Possessed by the very spirit of kindness and indulgence. † But it was in his Nature to strive for knowledge and to experiment. When the Creature was ‘born’, Frankenstein was an extremely poor parent and had none of the skills required to be a good parent. I feel almost no sympathy for Frankenstein, as He was unable to face up to his responsibilities once he had become a ‘father’ to this creature. # â€Å"The character of Frankenstein is not portrayed as evil, he is selfish and single minded in his pursuit to create perfection. He does not consider the implications of his dangerous experiments or believe that anything could possibly go wrong, his intentions he believed were good. Horrified at his failure and unable to accept what has happened he runs away from the problem, he is too vain to admit that what he has done is wrong. â€Å"- Andrew Prothero. I definitely feel more sympathy for the Creature, who has a desolate, lonely life. His crimes are forgivable, for he wasn’t educated in moral values. His actions were the result of extreme poverty and deprivation and ill- parenting. â€Å"The creature does not show his evil side until he has won the sympathy of the reader from his constant rejection and desperate need for love, he is shown to be highly intelligent and extremely sensitive to the feelings of the people that he has observed. † – Andrew Prothero I think this is how Shelley wanted us to feel. The early life experiences of the Creature and Frankenstein couldn’t be more different. † The ‘perfect’ baby is not just the product of its genes. It’s more the result of good nutrition, education, healthcare – and love† – Robert Winston.